Baking is defined as cooking flour-based in an enclosed oven and/or a griddle. Some other common ingredients includes: yeast, butter, eggs, sugars, and spices. Some ingredients are mandatory in order to achieve a certain aspect(s) of bread, whilst other contexts are there to achieve a certain taste of the bread.
Yeast is one of the mandatory ingredients in bread. Yeast are microorganisms that are classified a part of the fungus kingdom. The reason that yeast is used in bread baking because the bacteria eats the sugars and release carbon dioxide in the dough, causing it to expand and rise. Yeast is also used to strengthen the batter. When water and flour are mixed together, gluten is formed and gluten increases the elasticity and durability of the dough. With the yeast releasing carbon dioxide into the dough, it forces water and flour molecules to bond and create more gluten.
Type of wheat plays an important role in bread baking. Wheat is chosen based on what end result is desired. Wheat is divided up in six classes: hard, red winter; hard, red spring; soft, red winter; durum, hard white; and soft white wheat. Each species of wheat is used in different recipes to achieve a certain trait in the bread. Hard/red wheat are used in breads and similar goods, whereas soft/white wheat are used in pastry baking.